19C British Mahogany Schoolhouse or Railway Wall Clock. [headline style="16" font_size="15" align="center" headline_tag="h2"] 19C British…
Gorgeous American 19th Century Timepiece…… with an IRISH CONNECTION!!.
Made from rosewood and beautifully inlaid with various wood patterns of satinwood etc. In the style of Tunbridge ware.
Lovely hand painted glass gallery to front with window for watching the brass pendulum movement behind it.
The Dial is painted metal with Roman Numerals for time and in SUPERB CONDITION !
Pendulum operated. Made by the ‘Waterbury Clock Co’ of Connecticut.
The dial is encased in a brass and glass circular cover which has a catch on the side to keep in position. Release the catch to open.
Acanthus leaf carvings on either side of the clock.
Great Condition for a Wall Clock from circa 1875-80.
The Waterbury Clock Company, one of many 19th century Connecticut-based clock firms, began as a subsidiary of Benedict & Burnham, a brass manufacturing company, in 1857. Benedict & Burnham had no background in clock making, but it saw clocks as a means to use its brass. Over the years, Waterbury would become a leading manufacturer of clocks—by the time it closed its doors in 1944, it had made some of the most memorable American antique wall clocks and mantel clocks, as well as highly regarded clock movements and watches. Because of Waterbury’s roots in brass, the metal played a large role in the design of its clocks, but during its first few years, the firm lacked an experienced clock maker and designer. Enter Chauncey Jerome and his brother, Noble. Until they arrived, most of Waterbury’s business had been in the sale of movements and cases for clocks made elsewhere. Under the direction of the Jerome brothers, however, Waterbury’s production grew rapidly, necessitating the building of a new production facility in 1873 for its growing number of products. In the 1880s and early 1890s, Waterbury added non-jeweled pocket watches to its product line. In the final decade of the 19th century, Waterbury was producing upwards of 20,000 clocks and watches a day, and was selling its output through Sears, Roebuck & Company and other retailers. By 1915, Waterbury was making more clocks than any company in the United States. Throughout this period, Waterbury maintained a relationship with R.H. Ingersoll & Brother, a mail-order company. When Ingersoll fell on hard times in 1922 Waterbury bought the company—the combined firm was later renamed as the Ingersoll-Waterbury Company. Waterbury was not immune to the effects of the Great Depression, but it managed to stay afloat with the production of the Mickey Mouse wristwatch, which was a huge hit. In addition, Waterbury embraced changing technology and began producing electric clocks in 1932. As many companies did during World War II, Waterbury shifted gears during the first half of the 1940s to support the war effort. During this period, in 1942, Ingersoll-Waterbury was purchased by a group of Norwegians, who built a new factory for their firm in Waterbury, Connecticut. They also changed the company’s name to the United States Time Corporation, the forerunner of Timex.
PENDULUM CLOCK: A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element. The advantage of a pendulum for timekeeping is that it is a harmonic oscillator; it swings back and forth in a precise time interval dependent on its length, and resists swinging at other rates. From its invention in 1656 by Christiaan Huygens until the 1930s, the pendulum clock was the world’s most precise timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries pendulum clocks in homes, factories, offices and railroad stations served as primary time standards for scheduling daily life, work shifts, and public transportation, and their greater accuracy allowed the faster pace of life which was necessary for the Industrial Revolution.
Pendulum clocks must be stationary to operate; any motion or accelerations will affect the motion of the pendulum, causing inaccuracies, so other mechanisms must be used in portable timepieces. They are now kept mostly for their decorative and antique value.
The pendulum clock was invented in 1656 by Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, and patented the following year. Huygens contracted the construction of his clock designs to clockmaker Salomon Coster, who actually built the clock. Huygens was inspired by investigations of pendulums by Galileo Galilei beginning around 1602. Galileo discovered the key property that makes pendulums useful timekeepers: isochronism, which means that the period of swing of a pendulum is approximately the same for different sized swings. Galileo had the idea for a pendulum clock in 1637, which was partly constructed by his son in 1649, but neither lived to finish it. The introduction of the pendulum, the first harmonic oscillator used in timekeeping, increased the accuracy of clocks enormously, from about 15 minutes per day to 15 seconds per day leading to their rapid spread as existing ‘verge and foliot’ clocks were retrofitted with pendulums.
A lantern clock that has been converted to use a pendulum. To accommodate the wide pendulum swings caused by the verge escapement, “wings” have been added on the sides
Mantel clock (around 1800) by Julien Béliard, Paris, maître horloger recorded on the rue Saint-Benôit and rue Pavée in 1777, still active in 1817, or Julien-Antoine Béliard, maître horloger in 1786, recorded on the rue de Hurepoix, 1787–1806.
These early clocks, due to their verge escapements, had wide pendulum swings of up to 100°. In his 1673 analysis of pendulums, Horologium Oscillatorium, Huygens showed that wide swings made the pendulum inaccurate, causing its period, and thus the rate of the clock, to vary with unavoidable variations in the driving force provided by the movement. Clockmakers’ realization that only pendulums with small swings of a few degrees are isochronous motivated the invention of the anchor escapement around 1670, which reduced the pendulum’s swing to 4–6°. The anchor became the standard escapement used in pendulum clocks. In addition to increased accuracy, the anchor’s narrow pendulum swing allowed the clock’s case to accommodate longer, slower pendulums, which needed less power and caused less wear on the movement. The seconds pendulum (also called the Royal pendulum), 0.994 m (39.1 in) long, in which each swing takes one second, became widely used in quality clocks. The long narrow clocks built around these pendulums, first made by William Clement around 1680, became known as grandfather clocks. The increased accuracy resulting from these developments caused the minute hand, previously rare, to be added to clock faces beginning around 1690.
The 18th and 19th century wave of horological innovation that followed the invention of the pendulum brought many improvements to pendulum clocks. The deadbeat escapement invented in 1675 by Richard Towneley and popularized by George Graham around 1715 in his precision “regulator” clocks gradually replaced the anchor escapement and is now used in most modern pendulum clocks. Observation that pendulum clocks slowed down in summer brought the realization that thermal expansion and contraction of the pendulum rod with changes in temperature was a source of error. This was solved by the invention of temperature-compensated pendulums; the mercury pendulum by George Graham in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum by John Harrison in 1726. With these improvements, by the mid-18th century precision pendulum clocks achieved accuracies of a few seconds per week.
Until the 19th century, clocks were handmade by individual craftsmen and were very expensive. The rich ornamentation of pendulum clocks of this period indicates their value as status symbols of the wealthy. The clockmakers of each country and region in Europe developed their own distinctive styles. By the 19th century, factory production of clock parts gradually made pendulum clocks affordable by middle-class families.
During the Industrial Revolution, daily life was organized around the home pendulum clock. More accurate pendulum clocks, called regulators, were installed in places of business and used to schedule work and set other clocks. The most accurate, known as astronomical regulators, were used in observatories for astronomy, surveying, and celestial navigation. Beginning in the 19th century, astronomical regulators in naval observatories served as primary standards for national time distribution services. From 1909, US National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) based the US time standard on Riefler pendulum clocks, accurate to about 10 milliseconds per day. In 1929 it switched to the Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock before phasing in quartz standards in the 1930s.  With an error of around one second per year, the Shortt was the most accurate commercially produced pendulum clock.
Pendulum clocks remained the world standard for accurate timekeeping for 270 years, until the invention of the quartz clock in 1927, and were used as time standards through World War 2. The French Time Service used pendulum clocks as part of their ensemble of standard clocks until 1954  The home pendulum clock began to be replaced as domestic timekeeper during the 1930s and 1940s by the synchronous electric clock, which kept more accurate time because it was synchronized to the oscillation of the electric power grid. The most accurate experimental pendulum clock to date (2007) may be the Littlemore clock, built by Edward T. Hall in the 1990s (donated in 2003 to the National Watch and Clock Museum, Columbia, Pennsylvania, USA).
19C American Rosewood and Inlaid Wall Clock.
Provenance: Bought at Auction in Ireland.
Dimensions: 29″ Long, 17″ Wide at the Dial (The circular dial has a diameter of 17″), 9″ Wide at side panels and 4″ Deep
Condition: Excellent. It was working perfectly but needs a good servicing.